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`ENERGY EFFICIENCY page

BCA Academy - Zero Energy Building Trip :external image green1.jpgexternal image bxElMQwCpdubXwrgihAX5bZPnTaIG7ULXJQ-ffCE-ZD1qskZkVFujQ1MOpQQFQZVptCe_9vbhiildmPh94lN_CDZOpgkQsPyLcKpifSqMTAGBpS6t84


............................................................................................................Roof view of the building: Red chimney to allow warm air exit with replacement of cool air ............................................................................................................from the air condition; Transparent semi sphere directs light into room for lighting purpose;
............................................................................................................Transparent cylinder directs light with mirror system for adjustable lighting in meeting room.





Interesting Ideas and their Working Concepts


PASSIVE DISPLACEMENT AIRCONDITIONING

Air-conditioning system where cold air is blown into the room from the floor instead of the ceiling. BCA academy only cools the people in office instead of cooling the whole room. Thus saving a lot of unnecessary energy to cool down the whole room.

In a conventional air-conditioning system, the cold air comes out from the roof, and gradually sinks to cool down the lower part of the room where the people are. However, the cold air gains heat and cools the top part of the room first as it starts sinking gradually, thus it is not effective in cooling the lower part of the room specifically. In the new design, the cool air comes out from the bottom as cools the lower part of the room first, before slowly raising and got suck out through the ventilation vents. This system thus saves energy that will be used to cool the top of the room in a conventional air-conditioning system. The science behind this is that the cold air supplied by the air conditioner only helps cool the temperature at the level where people are, and when this air is heated up by human activities, it rises and escapes via a ventilation 'chimney' that connects from the ceiling to the roof of the building.


The use of natural convection currents eliminates the mixing of hot and cold air which is found in a standard fan coil. This in turns implies that energy used to cool the air is not wasted as hot and cold air are not allowed to mix.


LIGHT PIPES

Light pipes which reflect sunlight through the building.

Light reflection. Reflective inner surface of the light pipes allow the light to travel through the building and shine into the office. A shade on the top of the light pipe also helps to control the amount of light to have the optimum light intensity for its purpose (meetings/presentations).

Light travels in straight lines. Using reflective surfaces lining the inner surface of the pipes, sunlight which hits the roof is reflected down the pipe, which eventually reaches a room. The convergence of light rays within the pipes and a focused output contributes to a high light intensity, substituting artificial lighting



GREEN SHELVES

Green shelf - wall of plants surrounding building walls.Thermal radiation can be absorbed by green plants thus lowering the temperature of the surroundings as well as the building temperature.



UWC - Energy Efficient Campus Trip :
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.....................................................................................Roof view of the building : Elevated Football Field with half of the field acting as a storm water collection area for campus .....................................................................................irrigation and non-potable use; Efficient way of designing to save energy consumption.


Interesting Ideas and their Working Concepts


RAIN WATER COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Rain water is collected using half of the football field that is situated on the roof. Through the soil and other natural filtration devices, the rain water can be used for non portable purposes such as toilet flushing, water of plants, etc. Also, since it is not on ground level not pump is needed for filtration and gravity acts as a natural way to pull the way downwards and filter the rainwater in the process


EFFICIENT CHILLER PIPING SYSTEM / COOLING TOWER SYSTEM

The piping system where pipes are bent on smaller angles reduces the energy required for liquids to flow through them compared when flowing in sharp turns. This system with an efficient chiller puts the system as one of the most efficient chiller in the world.

Water vapour in the air condenses when it comes into contact with the outer surface of the heat exchange pipe. This water is collected and directed to the cooling tower which . This helps to save operating costs as the water used in the cooling system is lost due to evaporation when it is exposed in the cooling tower. Thus, by collecting the condensed water, less money is spent on buying water for the cooling system.


INNOVATIVE AIR-CONDITIONING MODEL w/ USE OF EFFICIENT FAN

The air conditioning system only draws in atmospheric fresh air, chilling it, without having a mechanism to draw out excess hot air. This cold air will rush out to the corridor, keeping the entire corridor cool. The cool air along the corridor sets up a high pressure area and the toilets along the corridor are also ventilated by this cool air as they have a open facing. This eliminates the need for an exhaust fan that would be normally be constantly at work in a typical toilet. Drawing in of fresh air in a single direction lowers the chances of accumulation of dust and bacteria in the air ducts. It also keeps the air in the classroom with a higher percentage of oxygen, which is good for students health and learning. This design lowers overall maintenance cost.

Classrooms are equipped with Haiku fans that uses a ECM motor that runs on a maximum of 15 W. Electronically commutated (ECM) motors are brushless DC motors where the direction of the electric current is switched using electronic controllers. ECM motors provide the advantages of brushed DC motors in terms of the ability to have variable speed control, but without the drawbacks of brushes. Without brushes to wear out, ECM motors have design lives equal or longer than AC motors. Moving air in the classroom reduces the need to drastically reduce the air temperature by air-conditioning, thus saving energy.



JTC CleanTech Park - CleanTech One Trip :


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.........................................................................................................Corridor view of the building : winding sidewalks for rain water collection to the natural valley; Building split into .........................................................................................................2-half so that wind can be directed through the building; Creepers growing over the building area to provide .........................................................................................................shade as well as to cool the area; Efficient LED lamps used for lighting up the street.
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Interesting Ideas and their Working Concepts


PERFORATED WALL CLADDINGS
The panels placed on the buildings with holes in them with different circumference. This minimises heat gain by thermal radiation but allows natural lighting of the corridors. This reduces the building cost of using glazed windows. Holes in the panels not only have an aesthetic appeal but allows the movement of air within the building. Naturally ventilated corridors removes the need for air conditioning.

GREEN and URBAN FRONT
Green Front and Urban Front (there are gardens/trees behind every urban building) - Clean Tech One uses alot of trees and plants to reduce the heat in the area. Plants have a greater albedo, so they tend to reflect the heat away more than concrete surfaces. Width of green buffer zones along the corridor was design to meet the point when heat gained by solar radiation is the highest, this cools down the overall heat signature of the building.

WIND WALL
The wind wall serves like a sail to capture the natural north eastern wind to ensure that the building is adequately ventilated without mechanical devices.


TEST BEDDING FOR GREEN IDEAS
Clean Tech One is an industrial building where green energy like hydrogen fuel cells, green trellis, energy management dashboard and other ideas may be tested on a small industrial scale. It serves as a model on how industrial buildings should be conceptualised, built and managed.



Student Reflections :
Zhang Zhenglin:
All in all, I felt that this was a very enriching course for me. It has completely changed my concept of energy efficiency. Before the course, I thought that energy efficiency was simply pouring money into green technology. For instance, buildings installing tons of solar panels. But, energy efficiency is far beyond that. It is through careful planning. Also, it can be cost effective. UWC was the best example. Not a single cent more was spent. I have for this course truly fruitful and have enjoyed it thoroughly.

Li Lidao:Making the building energy efficient may not require a high cost. With careful passive designs such as efficient aircon piping and wind walls, the building can prove to be energy efficient without extra cost. There are currently many sophisticated energy saving technologies being developed such as the third generation photovoltaic cells, but it is not used commercially because it is more expensive. Therefore, there is great potential in the energy efficient building market as new technologies mature and get integrated into constructions, increasing the building's energy efficiency.
Darren Lee Sheng Hao:
During this Engineering week, I have been able to experience how various industries use technologies such as solar power, collecting water and reusing it, etc. However, what I feel has been an important point would be how these companies compromise on being green and yet still achieve their objectives. This has indeeed been a fuitful and engaging journey for me.

Darryl Hwang Jun Siang:
It has been 2 fruitful trips for me, especially the trip to the UWC. It is not only things about energy efficiency that I have truely learnt, but also the sharing by the person-in-charge over there that, of which I truly think is worth learning about. It is of much hardwork and determination he has put in in order for UWC to be one of the most energy efficient buildings in Singapore. And it is also because of such a person that improvement can be made. Most importantly, he had taught me that learning is a never-ending process, and what I am doing now may not be what I will be going through in the future.

Tsang Bao Xian:
Overall, I feel that the trips have been very fruitful. It has widened my view on energy efficiency. Also, it has showed me that to obtain more energy efficiency, we must combine the products as well as the processes, in order to fit our needs. Every different thing has a different purpose, and while we want to be energy efficient, we have to weigh in our needs, and the real challenge is to have a balance between the two.

Lim Yan Peng Gary:
The experiences at the different field trips were truly enriching. I was captivated by the dozens of creative ideas that people have thought of to conserve energy and resources. I have also learnt a couple of new concepts and observed how they have been applied flexibly into real life scenarios. Of the 2 places I have visited (United World College and Clean Tech One), I prefer United World College more. Perhaps it is because it is a school environment and is more connected to my life. The parade square is very windy and cooling. If not for the structure and direction in which the buildings were built, the place could not have been kept as comfortable as it is now. I also like the classroom environment very much. I hope some day, the green council in our school could also make such things happen in Hwa Chong to create a conducive environment for students to study and have fun.

Yeo Wen Jie:
I was only present for the trip to CleanTech building and I felt that it was a really great one. Even though, I asked my friends about the other trips and I learnt many new concepts on how we are able to save energy efficiently. There are also many ways which we can make use of nature to improve our lives instead of consuming energy, such as the wind walls. I believe that energy effieciency is a very important concept and more people around the world needs to apply and practise it.

Loo Li Yang:
Throughout the trips, I think that the 1 thing that resonates the most deeply about the field trips is the fact that although newer, cleaner and greener technology should be implemented where ever possible to save the environment, it is also they way that people look at it that will impact how fast our environment will settle into suitable, sustainable standards. In other words, having green high-tech equipment is not enough if one is just wantonly going to use energy with a psychological reassurance of the machines, the people using the machines must face the fact that we must use less energy, or use it less excessively, in order to quicken the pace towards a sustainable environment.

Phua Yue Jun:
The field trips to the energy efficient buildings have indeed made me more aware of Singapore's efforts to reduce energy consumption and increase energy efficiency. It is interesting to see how the various buildings use different measures to do so for different purposes. For example, Clean Tech One uses LED lights, but UWC uses normal (but more energy efficient) lights. Overall, it is important to consider the priorities when embarking on an energy efficiency project. Even though all the buildings share common features like solar panels and vertical plant walls, they are adopted in different ways. Indeed, as the world's population is growing and energy is being used at a rapid rate, we need to explore more feasible methods to protect our Earth and ensure sustainable development. It is heartening that these buildings are taking the first step. In the long run, it ultimately benefits themselves.

Tan Kwan Wei Kevin:
Attending the Energy Efficiency visits and workshops have been a rewarding and enriching experiences. The speakers were truly well versed with their technology and their ramifications on our world. Living in a world where the energy crisis has been a growing concern, it is imperative that scientists and engineers devote efforts towards crafting green and efficient solutions to curb the issue. Through my visits, I have seen how scientific principles ranging from the simplest such as heat gain to complex ones like electric motors, have such tremendous influence towards crafting these innovations and inventions. Furthermore, the visit has broadened my view and perspective towards the energy industry as a whole. It has piqued my interest in the field.